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In 1964, yes 56 years ago, this programme was one of those; a real treasure chest of memories, data and experiences in one small volume.  As programmes are often lost and memories fade, I have selected some of the articles and re-produced them as reminders of the excitement and satisfaction I and many others had as a motorcyclist in the "60s" and how good the TT's were.  
(This is another article that appeared in the program that I have reproduced with some comments and some photographs by "Jeep" the editor).
The programme is always a must at any motorcycle function but the TT Official Guide and Programme is a hive of information that even after 50 or 60 years it is picked up and read just to bring back the memories and excitement of the action that stirred us in our past.  
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Two-Strokes in the Tourist Trophy Races, 1909-1963
By George Stevens
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The 1964 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Race Program 
... Page 2 ...
FOR sheer mechanical simplicity, the “utility” two-stroke engine has been unbeatable for over half a century; in lawn mowers, mopeds, modest out-board motors . . . and touring motorcycles. Attempts to increase the performance without complicating the engine too much have usually led to violent seizures or bearing failures, for with higher running temperatures and only marginal lubrication (large quantities of oil being impossible in a crankcase which is part of the induction system), 
When the first motorcycle T.T. was held, in 1907, every competing machine was powered by a four-stroke engine. Although a few experimental cars and motorcycles had been constructed, two-strokes were virtually unknown outside the spheres of industrial gas engines and crude marine motors-both running at low speeds, without much variation in load; and by no means approaching the then existing standards of four-stroke efficiency.
A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust (scavenging) functions occurring at the same time.
The first commercial two-stroke engine involving in-cylinder compression is attributed to Scottish engineer Dugald Clerk, who patented in 1881. However, unlike most later two-stroke engines, his had a separate charging cylinder. The crankcase-scavenged engine, employing the area below as a charging pump, is generally credited to Englishman Joseph Day. On 31 December 1879, German inventor Karl Benz produced a two-stroke gas engine,for which he received a patent in 1880 in Germany. The first truly practical two-stroke engine is attributed to Yorkshireman Alfred Angas Scott, who's twin-cylinder water-cooled motorcycles in 1908.  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In 1908 the T.T. entry was again exclusively four-stroke, but in the same year the rapidly growing motorcycle fraternity was startled by' the appearance of a revolutionary new design. This “elaborate freak”-as one critic dubbed it was the prototype two-stroke Scott, a neat little bicycle with telescopic spring forks, all-chain drive, a foot-operated two-speed gear and a compact twin-cylinder motor of only 333 c.c. capacity. It was the result of nearly ten years” painstaking development by its Bradford designer Alfred Scott, and was planned in its final form while he was laid ?at on his back with a broken leg the result of an accident on an experimental model. ("Enforced leisure”, he called it”)
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there is very little in the way of a"safety margin” under racing conditions.The late Joe Craig used to say that a given amount of development work would always show a greater dividend when lavished on a four-stroke motor. . . and many engineers agree with him! Nevertheless, there have been racing two-stroke motorcycles for nearly as many years as the T.T. itself. . .
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Six of these 1908 Scotts were built (by the Jowett brothers,later of car fame) and one of them ridden by Alfred Scott himself, scored heavily at a Midlands hill climb, winning several awards on formula. There were numerous protests on the grounds that the two-stroke engine, ?ring twice as often as its four-stroke counterpart, would naturally' develop more power and should therefore be handicapped in some way.
There was little or no truth in this claim of “extra power", but nevertheless the early A.C.U. authorities agreed to impose such a handicap: and late in 1908 it was announced that a special"equalising factor” would be applied to all two-stroke machines entered in open competition. The capacity was to be multiplied by 1.25 in the case of air-cooled engines and 1.32 if they were water-cooled.
This formula was enforced for the ?rst-ever two-stroke entries in the 1909 T.T.: a Scott, a Premo, and a Rex. The last named were air-cooled singles with a capacity of about 470 cc., so that when the formula was applied their effective capacity came well over the limit for single-cylinder machines. The Rex Company withdrew their machine and substituted a four-stroke model; and the Premier Motor Co., who made the Premo, undertook to fit a smaller barrel and piston in order to comply with the regulations.
The water-cooled Scott, although liable to a greater handicap,escaped such severe treatment because it was a twin-cylinder machine, and these being considered inefficient at that time were given an upper limit of 750cc. The cubic capacity of the Scott when handicapped was only 584cc, so that it was eligible without any modification. The 1909 T .T. was held in September, over the “old” course from St. John's to Kirkmichael and Peel, and then back to the start-a distance of nearly sixteen miles, which had to be covered nine times.The Premo and the Scott both turned out for practice, ridden by J. Leno and E.S. Myers respectively. Leno, restarting and riding the wrong way round the course, collided with another competitor and was disqualified for his dangerous antics (although many others did the same thing at that period!) and the Premo entry never reached the line.
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An innovative marque from the time of its inception in 1899 as a motor manufacturer, Rex demonstrated its first motorcycle in 1900 while continuing to make automobiles and tri-cars. The Coventry-based firm was soon active in all types of motorcycle competition, including the inaugural 1907 Isle of Man TT where Billy Heaton's sprung-fork Rex finished second in the twin-cylinder class. Prior to that Rex had exploited the valuable publicity that accrued from the popular long-distance events of the day, in particular the famous Lands End to John O'Groats journey between the most southerly and northerly parts of mainland Britain. Brothers Billy and Harold Williamson were in charge of Rex at this time, as managing and sales directors respectively, and it was the latter who in 1904 established a new record for this 880-mile marathon, which in those days involved travel over rough, un-surfaced and often treacherous roads.
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1908 Scott Motorcycle Patent Drawing
A picture taken at the Ramsey-Snaefell hill-climb held after the 1910 T.T. On the left is J. Hoffman astride a standard 1909 Scott (the ?rst production version) and on the right, Eric Myers with the 1910“racer” which carried him to 24th place in the T.T., despite punctures. (Frank Philipp, ?rst man to finish an Island race on a two-stroke machine, came 9th on a similar model.)
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Photo: courtesy of Harold Scott Pioneers:
Eric Myers, on the ?rst two-stroke machine to contest a T.T.,got a rousing cheer when he kick-started and got away smoothly and quietly.(The Scott featured the ?rst kick starter.) The machine was not particularly fast, but it ran steadily for seven of the nine laps before Myers crashed,loosening footrests and magneto and causing retirement. Although he did not finish the race, Myers repaired his Scott in time for a hill climb held, in two parts, on the Friday following the T.T. In the morning riders attacked Crogga, near Port Soderick; and in the afternoon they climbed Snaefell, Myers finished third on his overall performance.
In 1910 two Scotts were entered-and this time they were specially built racers, rather than “off-the-line”, as had been the 1909 entry.The forks on the 1909 machine were solid bicycle forks, whereas the 1910 racers had spring “telescopic” forks; the engine was larger and featured deeper-than-usual fins. The T.T. regulations once again assumed that twin-cylinder machines were slower than singles-but that they had improved slightly! While the limit for singles remained 500cc, that for twins was reduced to 670 c.c. The new Scott engines, after handicap formula had been applied, had a capacity of 640cc Both finished the ten laps of the old course, Frank Philipp in 9th place at an average speed around 40 m.p.h.; and Eric Myers, after punctures and constant plug trouble, in 24th position. Philipp did not compete in the Snaefell hill climb, but went along to watch Myers ride his T.T. Scott in company with J. Hoffman, on a standard 4 h.p. machine. The latter made a particularly good climb, "one of the very best and neatest performances" as Motor Cycling put it.
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Photo: Midwood H. O.  Timothy (“Tim”) Wood with the Scott he rode to 1st place in the 1913 Senior-a picture taken outside the “Prince of Wales", Ramsey.
In 1911 one of the most important-ever changes in the T.T.was made: the course was altered and the famous “Mountain circuit” adopted. 
Once again, Alfred Scott prepared special machines for the race-three of them. In an attempt to increase the power output of his engines, chain-driven rotary valves were incorporated in the form of horizontal rotors at the rear of each cylinder block. (These undoubtedly improved the “breathing" by lengthening the induction and transfer periods.) The three Scott riders were Frank Philipp, Frank Applebee and Eric Myers. Myers retired during the race,and so did Frank Philipp, but not before he had set the record lap for the new course at 50.11 m.p.h. In doing so, however, Philipp extended the Scott somewhat;and the chain drive to the rotary valve began to break up. 
Eventually the sprocket slipped on its taper, and he joined the list of retirements. Frank Applebee, only remaining Scott, ran into similar trouble with his valve-chain; but by stopping regularly and re-adjusting, he struggled on to finish-the last man home!
He was certainly unlucky in 1911, but the T.T. gremlins relented the following year when he became the ?rst two-stroke mounted T.T.winner. In April 1912 the 1908 A.C.U. two-stroke formula (which required a 32 per cent increase in the stated capacity of Scott machines) was abandoned; and by the end of May the little Bradford works had prepared two new racers-reduced in capacity to 486 c.c. and with a higher compression ratio. The rotary valve chain drive, which had given so much trouble the previous year, was replaced by a chain of gearwheels; two plugs per cylinder were fitted, and the fuel tank sported a huge 4 inch filler cap. (This was to assist in a remarkably well- organised pit routine, whereby only 15 second stops were necessary for oil and petrol refills.)
In practice, the Scotts showed excellent form and were obviously strong favourites. Frank Philipp was again unlucky in practice he“collected” a large bird in his front wheel while at speed, and when lying in second place on the last lap of the race, his rear tyre blew off at Ballaugh Bridge. His colleague, Applebee, led the race from start to finish,fractionally increasing his lead on every lap despite trouble from a trailing rear stand. He made fastest lap at 49.44 m.p.h., with an overall average of 48.69-speeds which were down on those of 1911. Orders for Scott machines rocketed and the firm opened a new factory at Shipley in order to increase production, as well as to continue two-stroke development. Scott "tidied up" his racing machines for 1913, but in the main details they were very similar to the successful 1912 models.
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Four Scotts were entered for the 1913 Senior, ridden by Frank Applebee, Percy Butler, “Fluffy" Long?eld and a youngster by the name of “Tim” Wood - who distinguished himself on the ?rst race day (the 1913 race was held over two days) by coming from 74th to 1st place and putting up an absolute record for the course on his last lap, at 52.12 m.p.h. On the second day he ran into various troubles, mainly a leak in the water cooling system, but just managed to maintain his lead, winning the race by a mere 5 seconds at an average speed of 50.87m.p.h.
But what of smaller machines? In the immediate pre-Kaiser-War days, something of a lightweight boom took place in Britain, as more and more manufacturers began to produce inexpensive two-stroke touring machines. Among those of note were the single-cylinder Levis motorcycles, made by the Butterfield brothers; and the Ivy. Both were entered in Junior T.T. races, a Levis coming home 13th in 1913 and repeating this result exactly in 1914, while in the latter year the Ivy “midget” (a 70 x 70mm single), the smallest machine in the race, finished just a few minutes inside maximum time.
Photo: “Motor Cycling" Although his name is well-known to generations of T.T. spectators, few will recognise him in this photograph! Geoff Davison astride the 250 c.c. Levis with which he won the lightweight classes of the T.T., the Belgian Grand Prix and the French Grand Prix in 1922, a “hattrick” which was not repeated until 1938, when E. Kluge won the same events on his 250 c.c. D.K.W.
In 1916 the Levis 211cc vertical two-stroke engine produced 3hp (2.2 kW). An enclosed chain from the crankshaft drove the Fellows magneto and drive to the rear wheel was by Pedley ‘Vee’ belt. The machine weighed approximately 120lb (54kg). Their first racing success was in the Lightweight 250 class within the 1920 Isle of Man TT Junior race with a 247cc machine, repeated in the 1922 TT Lightweight race. They then adopted the slogan, "The Master Two Stroke". Levis built 211cc and 246cc three-port single-cylinder machines, including sporting versions. Most had 67mm (2.6in) bore with a 70mm (2.8in) stroke, and there was also a six port model. 
The single cylinder, air-cooled, lightweights were not yet fast enough to challenge the winning four- strokes, at that time represented by N.U.T. and A.J.S. machines. In 1914 Alfred Scott announced his intention of building a machine that would “really go round corners”, and designed a most unusual engine to go with it. (Still a 180° twin-cylinder motor of“conventional” Scott layout, it incorporated a "twisting" valve rotor actuated by a link from a point halfway up the connecting rod, rather like the Corliss steam valve, on which it was based.)
“Tim” Wood justified Scott’s claim by putting up the fastest 1914 (and record) lap at 53.23 m.p.h., and led the race until magneto failure put him out during the fifth lap in the Isle of Man 250cc T.T. His colleagues met various troubles, the first to finish being Roy Lovegrove in 18th position. It was generally agreed that most of the Scott performance came from superior road holding, the four-strokes being slightly faster on long straight sections.
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In 1914 the Junior TT was reduced to 5 laps and the start-line moved to the top of Bray Hill to increase paddock space of the competitors. The use of crash-helmets was made compulsory. The 1914 Junior TT, which also included the 250cc race, was held in heavy rain and mist on the Mountain Section of the course and was won by Eric Williams riding an AJS motorcycle in 4 hours, 6 minutes and 50 seconds at an average speed of 45.58 mph.
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A circa 1929 Levis 247cc '6 Port' Two-stroke engine 
The race was marred by the death of Frank Walker:  [Frederick James 'Frank' Walker (1876 - 19 May 1914) Kingstown County Dublin Ireland was an Irish motorcycle racer who competed at the Isle of Man TT races. A hat manufacturer by trade, Frank Walker competed at the 1914 TT races riding a Royal Enfield motorcycle in the Junior TT race. After leading on the first lap, Walker suffered tyre problems and eventually dropped to sixth place. After regaining third place by lap 5, Walker ran wide into a ditch at Hillberry and was thrown over the handle-bars. After recovering his motorcycle, Walker continued on the last lap but fell at Willaston Corner on Ballanard Road after locking both wheels under braking. Again managing to continue, on the short distance to the finish his view of the finish-line was obscured by spectators who had spilled onto the road to watch the competitors cross the finish-line. Passing the judges box at the finish line, Walker continued at full racing speed through St. Ninians Crossroads and collided with a wooden barrier across Ballaquayle Road, was thrown from his motorcycle and taken to hospital where he died of his injuries. Later, Walker was posthumously declared third-place finisher by the ACU race committee in the Junior TT race won by Eric Williams.
Only a few weeks after the 1914 T.T. came the European crisis which disorganised nearly all forms of motorcycle racing until 1920, in which year the T.T. races were once again held. Levis celebrated their return to the Island with a 1-2-3 win in the Junior (250cc) class, and it is worth recording that their ?rst-place man (R.O. Clark) was at one point in the race second in the 350cc class, run concurrently; and might even have won it but for a last-lap crash just above Keppel Gate.
He managed to sort out the wreckage and ride to the finish to take 4th place in the Junior. The Senior race was once again a four-stroke benefit, Scotts not having recovered from the War effort and not entering any machines
In 1921, however, they returned with an advanced new model designed by the 1913 T.T. winner, Tim Wood. The new Scott featured 4 speeds and a linered aluminium engine-quite an advanced specification for 1921. It was not satisfactory,however, and made a poor showing-although the exhaust notes as the rider changed through four gears was likened to a well-known hymn! 
One of the riders, Harry Langman, making his first Island appearance, was lying 7th when an overheated chain snapped. Langman was to become the best-known two-stroke racer of the twenties, and remained loyal to Scott machines throughout his career.
In the 1921 250 c.c. class, four-stroke versus two-stroke competition was extremely hot, New Imperial favouring the former, and Levis and Velocette the latter. That also represented the order of makes at the finish, Geoff Davison and W. Harrison bringing home the “buzz-boxes” in 2nd and 3rd places.
In 1922 Geoff Davison, who should be around the Island somewhere this week (1964)! - won the Lightweight on his Levis at an average speed fractionally under 50 m.p.h., and S. J. Jones brought a Velocette into 3rd place. In the lightweight class, that was the end of two-stroke superiority (or even equality) for over a decade, and the know-alls began to refute all possibility of a successful small racing two-stroke. From time to time various manufacturers contested the larger-capacity classes with two-stroke machines (e.g. the Italian Garelli with a 350c.c. split-single in 1926), but the only firm continuing successfully to race two-strokes in the T.T., during the 'twenties’, was probably the most famous of all- that West Riding factory which had already provided two T.T. winners "Scott". After the 1921 debacle, they reverted to a really "hot"version of the classic open-frame two-speeder, forerunner of the famous"Super Squirrel”.
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Open Framed Scott Squirrel 486cc
In the hands of capable riders like Harry Langman and his brother-in-law Clarry Wood, these machines often came on the leader board, the best finishing result being Langman’s 2nd place at 61.23 m.p.h. in 1924, just 87 seconds behind the winner. Certainly the most spectacular two-stroke performance of the period was Harry Langman’s scorching ride in the first sidecar T.T., held in 1923. He led from the start, put up the fastest lap at 54.69 mph, and then crashed at Braddan on the last lap.
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Harry Langman (left ) and Clarry Wood (right) Both on the Open Framed  Scott Sidecar Outfits
He led from the start, put up the fastest lap at 54.69 mph,and then crashed at Braddan on the last lap. Thereafter, Scott fortunes began to decline steadily as the four-strokes developed more rapidly; and the 2-speeder was not raced in the T.T. after 1925. It lived on in older enthusiasts memories, however, as is shown by the following words by the late Ven. Stenning, from his article in the T.T. Programme for 1960: “Who of those who know it will ever forget the racing Scott? Its lovely note approaching Ballacraine, its change down, then, streaking away towards Ballig (and the loss of Ballig Bridge is also pathetic), its fading away in the distance, towards Glen Helen; its superb balance,its low centre of gravity, its water cooling and early chain drive, a machine that haunts one’s dreams. Why did it disappear? The answer to that one is fairly straight-forward: it was outclassed.
The heavyweight Scotts which were raced from 1926 to 1930, with massive frames and hand-change 3-speed boxes, were not a great deal better, and were considered by many to have inferior steering qualities. The best place obtained on such a Scott was by Tommy Hatch, who rode superbly in the rain-lashed 1928 Senior and came 3rd at 60.89 m.p.h.-slower than the lightweight winner's speed of the same year, and well down on the 1925-6-7 Senior speeds. In 1930 the Yorkshire firm produced a new racing machine with a massive crankshaft fully supported in Elektron castings, but it was rushed to completion, found unsatisfactory, and never raced. Scotts went into voluntary liquidation the same year, and although a new company was formed to manufacture touring machines, the racing Scott was dead. Or was it? In 1933 the T.T. organisers planned the reintroduction of the sidecar event, after a long lapse; and entries were invited. The Scott Company designed a racing machine bearing some resemblance to the standard Scott, but fitted with strengthened forks, frame and 4-speed close ratio box; and a mainly Elektron 596cc engine developing around 33 b.h.p. Two outfits were to be entered -one ridden by former ace Harry Langman, the other by Tommy Hatch.
Regrettably, the sidecar race was cancelled owing to inadequate entries; but enthusiast-dealer Albert Reynolds of Liverpool persuaded the Scott Co. to complete a 498cc version, and allow him to sponsor a“high speed reliability demonstration”by entering it in the 1933 Senior, with Tommy Hatch aboard. This was done, and Hatch managed to force the relatively slow machine into 15th place-the swansong of the marque, for it was the last time a Scott entered or finished a T.T. race. The racing two-stroke, Press pundits assured us, was impracticable; and with o.h.c. four-strokes dominating the racing scene, it certainly looked like it.
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Entry List for the 1927 T.T. Senior Race

The Harry Langman, Isle of Man T.T, Works, 1927 Scott 498cc. This is Harry on WW 1185.

Isle of Man TT, Works, 1927 Scott 498cc:› Harry Langman pictured on WW 1185, with Geoff Mílnes on WW 1186.

The Harry Langman, Isle of Man TT, Works, Scott 498cc: Harry is number 3, on the start line of the 1927 Senior T.T.
The Ex-Harry Langman, Isle of Man TT, Works, 1927 Scott 498cc 
Racing Motorcycle Registration no. WW 1185 
Frame no. 1927TT3 
Engine no. SP HL 27 
Sold for £ 32,775 inc. premium - Henley on Thames 
The Ward Brothers’ Reserve Collection

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SCOTT - 1928 dirt-track model
One bike that should never have been a success was the Scott... a 500cc twin cylinder two-stroke with water cooling and an unusual low slung frame. Produced in the Yorkshire town of Shipley, this was one bike that definitely did not look anything like a speedway bike...

Click to read the story from Black Country Biker
Click to read the story
Was that the end of the two-stroke at the T.T. meetings?
Continental engineers thought otherwise, and soon Manx eardrums were shattered by an exhaust note of unprecedented amplitude-that of the racing D.K.W. These machines, like the Scott many years before, were the result of considerable development; and they appeared at pre-war International race meetings with mechanics and riders of Teutonic super-efficiency, in the charge of Herr Prussing.
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They followed the engine design sometimes referred to as “twingles” (i.e. twin pistons in twin bores,but with a single common combustion head . . . rather like the earlier Puch or Trojan motors), and featured an extra pumping piston, in a “non-working” cylinder, whose purpose was to increase the charge during induction and transfer phases. This arrangement was generally referred to as a supercharger, although this is not strictly correct. In any event, there was no ban on supercharging in the immediate pre-war years, and the D.K.Ws were not handicapped.
They first appeared in the Island, in 250cc form, in 1935; and kicked off with a 7th place by Authin Geiss, his two team-mates retiring with that greatest of all two-stroke bogies - plug trouble. In 1936 Geiss returned and took 3rd place, but once again his colleagues faded out during the race. One of them was Stanley Woods, who put up a new lightweight record lap at 76.2 m.p.h., but retired when only eight miles from the finish.
One of the most interesting and promising of the post-war racing two-strokes-the three-cylinder 350 c.c. D.K.W. of the early 'fifties. This picture, taken at the 1954 Belgian G.P., shows the low build and carefully arranged exhaust system.  Photo: “MotorCycle” 
In 1937 the “Deek” team manager, Herr Prussing, signed up Ernie Thomas, who justified his inclusionby coming home 3rd at 73.17 m.p.h. Siegfried Wunsche finished 5th, but the third D.K.W. rider, Ewalde Kluge, retired. The water-cooled, highly specialised D.K.W. racing engine was obviously a potent device, and in 1938 the Saxony factory announced three entirely new versions!
E. Kluge on the 250 c.c. D.K.W. which won the 1938 lightweight T.T. These“blown” twin-piston two-strokes were extremely fast-and noisier than any other motorcycle, before or since!     Photo: “MotorCycle”
There was a new 350cc model, which won its first race at Eilenreide early in the year; an experimental 500cc, and an improved 250cc with even greater potential. The fuel consumption of the 500cc must have been prodigious, for even the 250cc consumed about 15 m.p.g. under racing conditions!
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From 1936 to 1939 Kluge was also a four-time German National Champion. But 1938 was his most successful year taking the European crown and the German road racing and Hill climb titles. Out of fourteen events he entered, he won 12 and was second twice attaining the “Champion of Champions“ accolade that was only granted to those who achieved the highest possible number of points. Click photo for more information.
Ewald Kluge was only 55 years old when he passed away in 1964, leaving a remarkable racing legacy.

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There was a new 350cc model, which won its first race at Eilenreide early in the year; an experimental 500cc, and an improved 250cc with even greater potential. The fuel consumption of the 500cc must have been prodigious, for even the 250cc consumed about 15 m.p.g. under racing conditions!
Walfreid Winkler with the 1938 DKW 350cc Works Racer
The DKW SS 250 Racing Model from 1938-39
The DKW 1938 SS 500 Racing Model in South America.
Notwithstanding the need for huge petrol tanks, these were the fastest and certainly the noisiest two-strokes seen in the T.T. up to that time, and no other manufacturer attempted to copy the D.K.W. type of engine for racing purposes. A lone British enthusiast produced a supercharged 250 c.c. two-stroke for the 1935 Lightweight, C. B. Taylor with his “C.B.T.”, but it failed to reach the starting line.
Kluge made history in the Lightweight T.T. of 1938. He won the race at 78.48 m.p.h. a record, and also made fastest lap at 80.35 m.p.h., the first time an 80 m.p.h. lap had been made in the 250 class. Kluge was the first two-stroke rider to win a T.T. since Geoff Davison in 1922, and if any doubt still existed about the "impracticability” of racing two-strokes, this dispelled it: Stanley Woods was the second man home, on an Excelsior, over eleven minutes after the Deek! But if the four-strokes were temporarily outclassed in the lightweight class, no such situation existed in the Junior and Senior classes where Norton and Velocette machines seemed invincible, and capable of lapping at around the ninety mark with a skilled jockey.
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One machine which did not, unfortunately, ever appear in racing trim in the Island was the 500cc V-8 blown two-stroke which the Italian Galbusera concern produced in 1938, that would have caused a sensation!
The 500cc racing D.K.W. never appeared in the T.T., it proved much too temperamental, but in 1939 the 350cc made its Island debut; and the late Fergus Anderson entered one in both the Junior and Senior races. He retired in the Junior but finished 28th in the Senior, missing a bronze replica by only 10 seconds, because he made a pit stop to re-fix a loosened exhaust pipe. H. Fleischmann brought his Junior D.K.W. into 3rd place at 82.51 m.p.h.,seconds behind Stanley Woods (Velocette) and Harold Daniells (Norton).
In the Lightweight race, run in the wet, Kluge could not quite catch Ted Mellorson on a Benelli, but finished 2nd at 72.97 m.p.h., followed by S. Wunsche in 5th place and Ernie Thomas in 8th: and this 2-5-8 finishing sequence marked the last T.T. performances of the 250 D.K.Ws. Both the 350 and 250 models used rotary blowers instead of pumping pistons in 1939, and obviously a very great deal of money was being spent in the search for racing supremacy at any cost.
Had the D.K.W. development continued, and forced induction remained acceptable, it is fascinating to conjecture on the machine which might have evolved. There is a noticeable parallel between the immediate pre-Kaiser War days and the pre-Hitler War days, as far as racing two-strokes are concerned, in that during those periods there were machines of this type fast enough, and reliable enough, to give serious competition to the best four-stroke machines; and that after a few years International upheaval the whole picture changed.
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When the T.T. was resumed, in 1947, supercharging was banned;and once again the experts could be heard saying that now unfair advantages had been removed, obviously no normally-aspirated two-stroke could be expected to develop enough power to win races: the racing two-stroke had “had it”. And for several years they seemed to be right. When the first 125 c.c. T.T. was held in 1951, it was treated indulgently by many followers of the sport-in much the same way as the more recently introduced 50cc class. There was much scoffing at the noisy but unimpressive performances of privately-modified B.S.A. Bantams, Villiers-engined machines, Anelay Specials, and the like, in the early fifties; but a certain amount of admiration for the quiet, diminutive Spanish Montesas which finished 5th and 6th behind the all-conquering o.h.c. Mondíals. The first British machine to finish was E. Hardy's D.O.T. in 7th place, in fact this make took 11th and 12th positions as well and won the manufacturers' team prize.
In the early years of the 125 c.c. T.T., two-strokes were badly outclassed by such speedy machines as M.V. and N.S.U., and two-stroke racing prestige was as much in the doldrums as it had been around 1930. Enthusiastic engineers like Joe Ehrlich continued to produce 125 c.c. machines that were very good, but not quite good enough; and generally speaking the Italian o.h.c. motors were regarded as unbeatable. Two-stroke competition in the larger classes was non-existent.
The ban on pressure-assisted induction forced the D.K.W. firm to turn their attention to the simple three-port two-stroke, and as a direct result they produce three entirely new racing air-cooled engines, three-cylinder, twin-cylinder and single-cylinder versions of 350cc, 250cc and 125cc respectively. The biggest model was mounted in an ultra-light frame and showed fantastic acceleration, but although fast it was not notably reliable. Siegfried Wunsche, before finally retiring, brought one of the lightweight D.K.W's into 3rd place in the 1953 250cc race, at an average speed of 81.34 m.p.h.; and versatile Cecil Sandford brought one of the three-cylinder 350s into 4th place in the 1956 Junior.
The D.K.W. concern, after abandoning their pre-war racing design and starting again from scratch, had shown that simple two-strokes could be made fast and reliable, at a price. Shortly afterwards, the Zschopau firm underwent re-organisation, the old “D.K.W.” designation being used exclusively for three-cylinder cars whose engines owed much to the motorcycle racing programme. 
In 1958 the MZ company booked its first wins in 125/250 cc Grand Prix racing and scored an over all second place in the 250cc World Championship. The MZ two strokes, developed by engineer Walter Kaaden have influenced motorcycle racing for decades. His 1961 125cc race engine design was the first engine to achieve an output of 200 BHP/litre. His revolutionary two stroke system was copied widely in the sixties by Japanese manufacturers. Yamaha and Suzuki two-stroke engines became competitive in motor sport only after they gained possession of MZ design secrets.
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Motorcycles continued to be made at the East German factory . . . and a new name came into the T.T. programme in 1958. M.Z. (Motorrad Zschopau).
The M.Z. development engineer, Walter Kaaden, evolved a new type of racing unit which has been adopted by several other firms-the common feature being a rotary disc inlet valve on the crankcase, and since then racing two-strokes have developed in a quite unprecedented way.
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Even more enthusiasts were pleasantly surprised when Mike O'Rourke the following year brought a Herman-Meier-tuned Ariel “Arrow” into 7th place in the 250cc race, at over 80 m.p.h. using many of Walter Kaaden's techniques.
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Enthusiasts, were encouraged by seeing Luigi Taveri (M.Z.) put up a fastest lap in the 1959 125c.c. Ultra Lightweight T. T. event, at 74.99 m.p.h
Another British machine came into the limelight in 1962, when Mike Hailwood astonished many a critic by his determined and very fast ride on an E.M.C. 125 c.c. machine, developed by Dr. Joe Erlich, brought to an end by  gear failure.
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Events of the past two years have seen a profound change in two-stroke racing fortunes; 50cc and 125cc Suzuki machines have proved virtually unbeatable, and spectators who saw the 250cc Yamahas in action last year will not forget them in a hurry...! Less spectacular, but worthy of mention, were the fine performances put up by A. Harris, who finished 8th at 81.47 m.p.h. on his 250 Greeves; and Dan Shorey, who came into 9th position just a minute later with his 196 c.c. Bultaco.
That brings us right up to date, and in this day and age motorcyclists are well served by a lively Trade Press, which publishes full details of all modern racing machinery. This week, two-strokes will be out in force in the smaller classes; and judging by their previous form they are well able to challenge the contemporary four-strokes for speed . . . but whether or not they can prove reliable in this, the World's Greatest Road Race, remains to be seen. Watch them keenly - more than one rider will have anxious, sensitive fingers resting lightly on the clutch lever!
Research:
The 1964 Isle of Man T.T. Program
JEEP's Archives
Motor Cycle News, Motor Cycle, Other Motorcycle Magazines 
On-Line encyclopedias News Paper Cuttings/ Scrap Books 
Submissions from readers by email. 
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Return to the The 1964 Isle of Man Tourist Trophy Race Program
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TWO EXAMPLES OF MODERN ORIENTAL DESIGN
 Left - One of the 1963 Yamaha 250cc twins, which last year caused quite a stir in the hands of Fumio Ito and Tony Godfrey. - Photo “Motor Cycle” 
Below Plumber's nightmare-the fascinating Suzuki four-cylinder liquid-cooled 250, virtually a doubled-up” version of the highly successful 125cc models. - Photo: Suzuki Motor Co. 
Two-Strokes in the Tourist Trophy Races | 1909-1963
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